Yet, it was a similar type of calculation that identified the approximate position of Pluto before it was discovered. Because Transpluto moves so slowly— from toit has moved only 23 degrees— the verification of this planet through photography will be a tedious and prolonged task. When I first obtained the Transpluto ephemeris, I decided that this planet would rule either Taurus or Virgo.
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract This paper examines differences in work-family conflict and synergy among the four generational groups represented in the contemporary workforce: Significant generational differences were found for work-family conflict work interfering with family and family interfering with work but not for work-family synergy.
Mental health and job pressure were the best predictors of work interfering with family conflict for each generational group. Work-family synergy presented a more complex picture.
Work-family conflict and synergy were significantly related to job, marital, and life satisfaction. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Introduction Managing workers from different generational groups has received increasing attention from managers and researchers.
This interest has been fueled by the notion that generational groups differ with respect to their values, interests, motivations, and style of organizational adaptation. Understanding these potential differences might help in crafting organizational structures and programs to enable each group to be maximally productive e.
The goal of this paper was to determine whether generational cohorts vary with respect to work-family conflict and synergy. Generational Groups Mannheim [ 3 ] is credited with developing the concept of generations as they are now conceived: As such, generational models attempt to explain the interaction between individuals and the historical events that both shape and are shaped by, the cohorts.
As Scott [ 4 ] has noted: This natural view stays with the individual throughout their lives and is the anchor against which later experiences are interpreted. This suggests that generational effects transcend age per se. Generation means being born at a certain time period within a specific zeitgeist that is shaped by major developmental events.
Boomers, born between andrepresented the 17 million additional births following World War II. Xers were born roughly between and One of the major factors influencing this cohort is technology and the internet [ 8 ]. We need to develop a more complete understanding of generational cohorts in the workplace and what factors contribute to work-family conflict and synergy for each.
Given the high level of interest in generational differences, few empirical studies e. And, while Klun [ 10 ] used a case analysis to study work-life balance among Xers and GenY, this study did not specifically examine work-family conflict and synergy.
There have been a number of other studies that have looked at generational effects on careers [ 11121314 ], psychological contracts [ 15 ], job satisfaction and turnover intentions [ 16 ], human resource and workforce issues [ 17 ], and on work values, attitudes, beliefs, and expectations [ 812181920 ] And, while a recent meta-analytic review questioned the idea of generational differences in work-related attitudes [ 2 ], our goal is to expand previous work that has reported such differences for work and family domains [ 7 ].
This investigation was undertaken to address three research questions: Are there generational differences with respect to work-family conflict and synergy?
What are the antecedents of work-family conflict and synergy for generational cohorts? Are work-family conflict and synergy correlated with satisfaction outcomes i. These questions are addressed using the National Study of the Changing Workforce. The conflict literature is extensive and continues to proliferate.
And, it is generally acknowledged that directionality of role interference is important: Maertz and Boyar [ 23 ] offer a recent review and critique on this line of research.
Roles need not be is a constant state of tension and conflict as shown in recent theory and research [ 2425 ]. Various labels have been attached to this phenomenon: Synergy appears to be the best fit for the variable measured here.The Case for Reparations. Two hundred fifty years of slavery.
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