These markets will quickly respond to changes in supply and demand to find an equilibrium price and quantity. In addition, investors can gain passive exposure to the commodity markets through a commodity price index. In order to diversify their investments and mitigate the risks associated with inflationary debasement of currencies, pension funds and sovereign wealth funds allocate capital to non-listed assets such as a commodities and commodity-related infrastructure. According to economist theorists, companies receive a convenience yield by holding inventories of certain commodities.
The Many Worlds Theory Today Rare earth elements include the lanthanide series, ytterium, and scandium, highlighted here in light blue.
Rare earths are not easy to mine. Rare earths are ubiquitous in the consumer electronics industry, not just cell phones. Nearly every item with an on-off switch contains rare earths. From tothe United States produced and mined its own rare earths.
One huge mine in southern California, called Mountain Pass, was the biggest resource in the U. The invention of the color TV in the mids, which required the rare earth europium to produce the color red, put Mountain Pass on the map. Mountain Pass was shut down inhaving been knocked out by a one-two punch of environmental violations and globalized markets.
One of the dirty little secrets about rare-earth mining is that a major by-product is radioactive waste in the form of thorium. As early asground-water samples showed the tailing ponds were leaking. By the late s, Mountain Pass had leakedgallons on seven separate occasions, spoiling the surrounding desert, which is habitat for the endangered desert tortoise.
But the real knockout blow came from China, which has its own substantial deposits. It also had cheap labor, so it could mine the minerals at lower prices. Sea Change The tables may be turning, though.
Inthe owner of Mountain Pass, Molycorp, pledged that it had cleaned up its act and was granted a permit to restart the mining of rare earths.
It takes many years to reboot such an involved operation, but inMolycorp said they were on track to produce nearly 20, metric tons of rare earths. This year, that amount should double.
Many countries, including the U. In the far future, we could even turn to the Moon, which is unusually rich in rare earths. Over the next few years, says Thomas Graedel, an industrial ecologist at Yale University and an expert in rare earths, the U.
One way we can all contribute is by digging our old cell phones out of our desks. Each phone contains up to a few grams of rare earths.
That might not seem like much, but when you add up the over million retired cell phones that live in desk drawers, closets, and shoeboxes, you start to get somewhere. Recycling old electronics will not only free up valuable rare earths, but also copper, gold, palladium, and platinum.
Think of your used cell phone as a miniature gold mine. In a few years, when you replace your iPhone 5, consider recycling it to free up its valuable materials.
Companies would be wise to initiate incentives to promote this recycling habit, too. Credits toward new purchases or gift cards could get things rolling.Death on Demand (Death on Demand Mysteries, No.
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Economics: (1) Desire for certain good or service supported by the capacity to purchase it. (2) The aggregate quantity of a product or service estimated to be bought at a particular price. (3) The total amount of funds which individuals or organizations want to commit for spending on goods or services over a specific metin2sell.com also law of supply and demand.
In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.
Most commodities are raw materials, basic resources, agricultural, or mining products, such as iron ore, sugar, or grains like rice and wheat. IHS Technology is the world’s leading source for research, analysis, and strategic guidance in the technology, media, and telecommunications industries.
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