If we are to halt the destruction of our environment, we must accept limits to that growth. In countries like China, the government has put policies in place that regulate the number of children allowed to a coupleand some leaders and environmentalists are suggesting that the United Nations implement a China-like one-child policy globally to help control and reduce overpopulation gradually. Others, such as Gerard K.
This seems good news for anyone concerned about the environment. A finite planet obviously cannot sustain limitless population growth, and many environmentalists make the case that even the current population, 7.
For economists, however, and for the public officials they inform, the aging and decline of the population presents not a boon but a threat.
When the fertility rate falls below replacement level, the older generation outnumbers the newer. That means fewer workers supporting more retirees, falling income-tax revenues and reduced economic growth. Accordingly, many countries including Singapore, France, Austria, Chile and South Korea, are offering people financial incentives to have children.
So here, as in many other arenas, we seem to face a contradiction between economic and ecological health. But a closer look at population and economic growth reveals there is more to the story, with problems extending right to the basic structure of our financial system.
Why then do we think we need to add even more youth to the workforce? The short answer is that our financial system requires growth in order to function.
In a system in which money is created as interest-bearing debt, the absence of growth means fewer lending opportunities. Without new money entering the economy, existing debts are harder to repay. Bankruptcies increase, wealth concentrates in fewer hands, and pressure grows to financialise assets, liquidate natural wealth, cut social services and essentially direct all resources toward the servicing of debt.
While this is going on, technological improvements in productivity lead to lower employment, which, coupled with rising indebtedness, cut demand and reduce lending opportunities even more. In other words, the growth imperative comes not because human needs are greater than in the past, but because the financial system requires growth.
Economic growth is much easier to achieve when the population is growing as well. In its absence, consumption per capita must grow instead.
Indeed, certain countries uphold economic growth as a way to deal with the problem of aging population. This should sober up our celebration of the drop in fertility rates, if they accompany resource-intensive development.
And apparently they do: If everyone on Earth lived the lifestyle of a traditional Indian villager, it is arguable that even 12 billion would be a sustainable world population. If everyone lives like an upper-middle-class North American a status to which much of the world seems to aspirethen even two billion is unsustainable.
Population decline is welcome news, but it needs to be considered in a larger context. Population stability or decline is not an environmental panacea if it is accompanied by continued growth in consumption.
This means that overpopulation is a red herring. Of course, at some point, preferably soon, population growth must end, but overpopulation is a diversion from more fundamental issues.
Lurking behind the spectre of population growth lies a more challenging problem: Indeed, it plays into a colonialistic narrative that the fecund masses of the global south are to blame for the environmental crisis, and suggests that the solution is more development with its population-limiting effects.
In comparison, it is far more disruptive to the present world order to challenge economic growth, globalisation, and development.
Whether in terms of population or consumption, sustainability cannot mean sustainable growth. Join the community of sustainability professionals and experts. Become a GSB member to get more stories like this direct to your inbox Topics.overpopulation of india: factors, implications and recommendations The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the overpopulation issue of India and propose recommendations on how to overcome it.
First, the paper summarizes the crucial demographic conditions and where India stands by numbers. Overpopulation Report - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation .ppt), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online.4/4(1).
Overpopulation Recommendation The aim of this essay is to give an overview of the issue what threats does overpopulation opposes First let us first know what does overpopulation mean.
It generally means the condition where the organism’s number exceeds the carrying capacity of the habitat, which will cause a population crash. Conclusion and recommendation As this technical brief has demonstrated, when high and low variants of population growth are taken into account, it becomes apparent that the health workforce crisis could worsen in a significant number of countries over the coming decades.
Conclusion and recommendation. As this technical brief has demonstrated, when high and low variants of population growth are taken into account, it becomes apparent that the health workforce crisis could worsen in a significant number of countries over the coming decades.
1 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS* Population and economic activities are extremely concentrated in dense metropolitan areas and along coastal plains in Japan, while two-thirds of the archipelago is mountainous and covered with forests.