Among the most popular variations of the social constructionist theories is the gender role theory, considered by Alsop, Fitzsimons and Lennon as an early form of social constructionism. Social constructionismbriefly, is the concept that there are many things that people "know" or take to be "reality" that are at least partially, if not completely, socially situated. Examples include money, tenurecitizenshipdecorations for bravery, and the presidency of the United States. Social constructionism is a theory of knowledge.
Positions of Social positions of women can exist in almost any setting, from small scale, unofficial groups or clubs, all the way to the obvious leaders of nations or CEOs of companies. These more official situations are found in many areas, such as government, industry and business, science and academia, the media, and many other Social positions of women.
Gender as a factor[ edit ] Positions of power and gender are very intertwined. A journal article summarizes this relation between gender and power: In the history of the west, certainly, women have had less access to most forms of power than have men. Many people believe that men are interested in power and getting power while women are not.
Others hold that men and women differ in the ways that they establish, maintain and express power". Race, class, sexuality, age, and other factors all play a significant part in who is in control. This traditional role of fostering and nurturing others ensued from various sources, but the results are a decrease in the value of work done by women and a decreased ability to work outside the home.
This all leads to the expectation that women have responsibilities in the home and often plays a part in occupational sexism. The view of women as caretakers of the family extends beyond the familial unit to others. Women have traditionally been seen as caretakers, of both people and other beings and things   However, this caretaker occupation has most often been a subordinate one, under the direction of a superior, usually a man.
Studies show that "it is common for stereotypical ideas about women's abilities to perform well in leadership positions to inform people's perceptions about women leaders". Women in government For many years and in most regions of the globe, politics had not allowed women to play a significant role in government.
Even in the early s, politics were viewed almost exclusively as the domain of men. One study found: Accordingly, there are different degrees to which women partake in these different levels. For example, studies have found in India that "large scale membership of women in local councils" can be more effective in exerting influence, such as over crime rates, than "their presence in higher level leadership positions".
After earning the right to vote, it often took decades for women to turn out to the polls in numbers proportional to their male counterparts. Today, women are enfranchised in all countries with a legislature other than Saudi Arabia.
In general, the quota system has acted as a fast-track to incorporating greater female representation into the governing systems. Thirty percent of elected position seats was recommended as the critical mass necessary to gain effective policy from female representation.
Additionally, of these 32 countries represented by women, only three, the United StatesSingaporeand Luxembourgare considered core countries, making women-represented core countries only an even smaller percentage. Industry and business[ edit ] Further information: Women CEOs of the FortuneWomen in businessand Gender representation on corporate boards of directors Most top and high-power positions in businesses and companies are held by men[ where?
Studies have found that gender diversity in top-level boards means broader perspectives and opinions, which result in more comprehensive outcomes.
Unfortunately, this did not lead to greater employment of women in higher roles. New tactics need to be enacted in order to give employers incentives to hire more women, specifically for management and executive roles. Discrepancies often occur between qualities of leaders and qualities of women as leaders.
Once women are respected and given credibility in the workplace, they will have the ability to occupy higher positions.
The glass ceiling is a phenomenon in which women in the workplace, climb the corporate ladder through with qualifications equal to those of their male counterparts only to find that they cannot proceed past a certain point due to gender stereotypes and their implications.
The glass ceiling most directly affects those women who spend many years working in an industry to build up achievements and a status of credibility in order to be considered for positions of power within the company or industry.
However, when these women's achievements are ignored and their success halted because of ignorant stereotypes, they are not the only ones affected.
Many young women entering the workforce often look up to these driven women and aspire to achieve many of the same dreams. Yet when these young women witness their mentors and idols failing to achieve their dreams because of gender inequality, a culture begins to develop amongst women where they do not feel worthy of power and struggle with self empowerment.
While companies are shifting toward greater gender diversity in the workplace, it is still necessary to identify and rectify why women are not gaining leadership positions, even though equal pay for equal work exists. Evidence shows that organizations who play an active management role in diversity in the workplace have positive results.
Active management in diversity has led to pay equity, more flexible schedules, and equal access to advancement opportunity. Using innovation in the workplace and installing unconventional programs has landed success in employing more women. However, there are some exceptions, such as Rwanda.
As a result, Sweden is the country with the second highest rate of female participation in government, behind Rwanda.
However, some countries, especially more liberal ones such as the United Arab Emirates, many women are making progress toward greater power[ citation needed ]. Latin America[ edit ] In terms of leadership ratios, Latin America is one of the most progressive regions in the world when it comes to electing women.
One fourth of the legislators in Latin America are women; a higher ratio can only be found in Scandinavia. The previous president of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, is one example.The social construction of gender is a notion in feminism and sociology about the operation of gender and gender differences in societies.
According to this view, society and culture create gender roles, and these roles are prescribed as ideal or appropriate behavior for a person of that specific sex. Socio-economic position determines the environmental hazards -- such as air pollution and noise -- that pregnant women are exposed to in urban areas, although the nature of the association varies from city to city.
The changing social position of women in Japan and regulated the relationships between men and women in general, and between husband and wife in particular, that had come to prevail among the common people.
The degree to which this norm was adopted varied from one class to another and, within a single class, from one section of it to another.
Status And Social Position Of Women Sociology Essay Introduction: Status and Social Position of Women. The women are the soul of our community and they are self build and self trained human responsible for the morale development of their children, inspiration for the family and an example for the community to follow.
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There are over Social Worker Womens Health careers waiting for you to apply! Women in the Islamic Republic of Iran: Legal Status, Social Positions, and Collective Action Valentine M. Moghadam* The following article was written by Valentine M.
Moghadam in connection with her.