Gestalt theory[ edit ] Cognitive theories grew out of Gestalt psychology. Gestalt psychology was developed in Germany in the early s by Wolfgang Kohler  and was brought to America in the s.
Both approaches Social constructivism Deep roots classical antiquity. Socrates, in dialogue with his followers, asked directed questions that led his students to realize for themselves the weaknesses in their thinking.
Learning is perceived as an active, not a passive, process, where knowledge is constructed, not acquired Knowledge construction is based on personal experiences and the continual testing of hypotheses Each person has a different interpretation and construction of knowledge process, based on past experiences and cultural factors.
Emphasis is on the collaborative nature of learning and the importance of cultural and social context. All cognitive functions are believed to originate in, and are explained as products of social interactions Learning is more than the assimilation of new knowledge by learners; it was the process by which learners were integrated into a knowledge community.
Believed that constructivists such as Piaget had overlooked the essentially social nature of language and consequently failed to understand that learning is a collaborative process. Underlying Assumptions Jonassen proposed that there are eight characteristics that underline the constructivist learning environments and are applicable to both perspectives: Constructivist learning environments provide multiple representations of reality.
Multiple representations avoid oversimplification and represent the complexity of the real world. Constructivist learning environments emphasize knowledge construction inserted of knowledge reproduction. Constructivist learning environments emphasize authentic tasks in a meaningful context rather than abstract instruction out of context.
Constructivist learning environments provide learning environments such as real-world settings or case-based learning instead of predetermined sequences of instruction. Constructivist learning environments encourage thoughtful reflection on experience.
Constructivist learning environments "enable context- and content- dependent knowledge construction.
There is no absolute knowledge, just our interpretation of it. The acquisition of knowledge therefore requires the individual to consider the information and - based on their past experiences, personal views, and cultural background - construct an interpretation of the information that is being presented to them.
New ideas and experiences are matched against existing knowledge, and the learner constructs new or adapted rules to make sense of the world. Bruner and Piaget are considered the chief theorists among the cognitive constructivists, while Vygotsky is the major theorist among the social constructivists.
Students should be provided with opportunities to think from themselves and articulate their thoughts. Dewey called for education to be grounded in real experience. He wrote, "If you have doubts about how learning happens, engage in sustained inquiry: Instead, he proposed that learning is a dynamic process comprising successive stages of adaption to reality during which learners actively construct knowledge by creating and testing their own theories of the world.
This is actually confusing a theory of pedagogy teaching with a theory of knowing.
Thus, even listening to a lecture involves active attempts to construct new knowledge. Bruner Influenced by Vygotsky, Bruner emphasises the role of the teacher, language and instruction. He thought that different processes were used by learners in problem solving, that these vary from person to person and that social interaction lay at the root of good learning.
Bruner builds on the Socratic tradition of learning through dialogue, encouraging the learner to come to enlighten themselves through reflection. Careful curriculum design is essential so that one area builds upon the other. Learning must therefore be a process of discovery where learners build their own knowledge, with the active dialogue of teachers, building on their existing knowledge.
Bruner initiated curriculum change based on the notion that learning is an active, social process in which students construct new ideas or concepts based on their current knowledge. He provides the following principles of constructivistic learning: Instruction must be concerned with the experiences and contexts that make the student willing and able to learn readiness.This theory states that learning is an active process of creating meaning from different experiences.
In other words, students will learn best by by trying to make sense of something on their own with the teacher as a guide to help them along the way.
Constructivism as a paradigm or worldview posits that learning is an active, constructive process. The learner is an information constructor. People actively construct or create their own subjective representations of objective reality. Constructivism Learning Theory.
Constructivism learning theory is a philosophy which enhances students' logical and conceptual growth. The underlying concept within the constructivism learning theory is the role which experiences-or connections with . 2 years ago • Constructivist Theories, Paradigms and Perspectives • 0 Constructivism as a paradigm or worldview posits that learning is an active, constructive process.
The learner is . Jan 11, · The theory suggests that humans construct knowledge and meaning from their experiences. Constructivism is not a specific pedagogy. Piaget's theory of Constructivist learning has had wide ranging impact on learning theories and teaching methods in education and is an underlying theme of many education reform movements.
Social Constructivism in the classroom Reciprocal Teaching. Where a teacher and 2 to 4 students form a collaborative group and take turns leading dialogues on a topic.