With breathtaking command of medieval Muslim sources as well as the vast literature on medieval European and Muslim culture, Carole Hillenbrand has produced a book that shows not only how the Crusades were perceived by the Muslims, but how the Crusades affected the Muslim world - militarily, culturally, and psychologically. As the author demonstrates, that influence continues now, centuries after the events. In The Crusades the reader discovers how the Muslims reacted to the Franks, and how Muslim populations were displaced, the ensuing period of jihad, the careers of Nur al-Din and Saladin, and the interpenetration of Muslim and Christian cultures. Stereotypes of the Franks in Muslim documents offer a fascinating counter to Western views of the infidel of legend.
Early life[ edit ] Ibn Jubayr was born in A.
He later became secretary to the Almohad governor of Granada. As secretary for the ruler of Granada inhe was forced, under threat, to drink seven cups of wine.
Seized by remorse, the ruler then filled seven cups of gold dinars which he gave him. To expiate his godless act, although forced upon him, Ibn Jubayr decided to perform the duty of Hajj to Mecca.
He left Granada on 3 February accompanied by a physician from the city. He boarded a Genoese ship on February 24, and set sail for Alexandria. His sea journey took him past the Balearic Islands and then across to the west coast of Sardinia.
Whilst offshore he heard of the fate of 80 Muslim men, women and children who had been abducted from North Africa and were being sold into slavery.
Between Sardinia and Sicily the ship ran into a severe storm. He said of the Italians and Muslims on board who had experience of the sea that "all agreed that they had never in their lives seen such a tempest".
He arrived in Alexandria on March In Egypt[ edit ] Saladin and the Mamluks assured the protection of Caravan routes that allowed travel to distant lands.
Everywhere that Ibn Jubayr travelled in Egypt he was full of praise for the new Sunni ruler, Saladin. For example, he says of him that: He also says that "such is his Salahuddin's justice, and the safety he has brought to his high-roads that men in his lands can go about their affairs by night and from its darkness apprehend no awe that should deter them.
Of CairoIbn Jubayr notes, are the colleges and hostels erected for students and pious men of other lands by the Sultan Saladin. In those colleges students find lodging and tutors to teach them the sciences they desire, and also allowances to cover their needs.
The care of the sultan also grants them baths, hospitals, and the appointment of doctors who can even come to visit them at their place of stay, and who would be answerable for their cure. One of the Sultan Saladin 's other generous acts was that every day two thousand loaves of bread were distributed to the poor.
Also impressing Ibn Jubayr in that city was the number of mosques, estimated at between 8 and 12 thousand; often four or five of them in the same street.
In Alexandria[ edit ] Upon arrival at Alexandria Ibn Jubayr was angered by the customs officials who insisted on taking zakat from the pilgrims, regardless of whether they were obliged to pay it or not.
In the city he visited the Lighthouse of Alexandriawhich at that time was still standing, and he was amazed by its size and splendour. One of the greatest wonders that we saw in this city was the lighthouse which Great and Glorious God had erected by the hands of those who were forced to such labor as 'Indeed in that are signs for those who discern'.
It can be seen for more than seventy miles, and is of great antiquity. It is most strongly built in all directions and competes with the skies in height. Description of it falls short, the eyes fail to comprehend it, and words are inadequate, so vast is the spectacle.
These were paid for by awqaf and taxes on the city's Jews and Christians. He noted that there were between 8, and 12, mosques in Alexandria. After a stay of eight days he set off for Cairo. An Egyptian Mamluk in full armor and armed with lanceshield and sabre He reached Cairo three days later.
In the city he visited the cemetery at al-Qarafahwhich contained the graves of many important figures in the history of Islam. He noted while in the Cairo of Saladinthe walls of the citadel were being extended by the Mamluks with the object of reinforcing the entire city from any future Crusader siege.
Another building work that he saw was the construction of a bridge over the Nilewhich would be high enough not to be submerged in the annual flooding of the river. He saw a spacious free hospital which was divided into three sections: He saw the pyramidsalthough he was unaware of who they had been built for, and the Sphinx.
He also saw a device that was used for measuring the height of the Nile flood. He comments on the activity of the volcanoes: At the close of night a red flame appeared, throwing up tongues into the air.
It was the celebrated volcano Stromboli. We were told that a fiery blast of great violence bursts out from air-holes in the two mountains and makes the fire. Often a great stone is cast up and thrown into the air by the force of the blast and prevented thereby from falling and settling at the bottom.
This is one of the most remarkable of stories, and it is true. It passes nothing it does not burn until, coming to the sea, it rides out on its surface and then subsides beneath it. Let us praise the Author of all things for His marvelous creations.Dec 22, · Polar Music Prize 7,, views 너무아픈 사랑은 사랑이 아니었음을 (Love that is too painful was not love) _ 김필 年 - Duration: Today is the birthday () of Ibn Jubayr (ابنجبير), geographer, traveler, and poet from al-Andalus.
His travel chronicle describes the pilgrimage he made to Mecca from to , in the years preceding the Third Crusade. views. 3 Up votes, mark as useful. 0 Down votes, mark as not useful. Travels of Ibn metin2sell.com Documents Similar To Travels of Ibn metin2sell.com 30 Beautiful Hadiths and Quranic Verses on the Etiquettes of Speech But the Franks have near to it a garrisoned castle which prevents men from passing it.
and the darkness thickened and 5/5(3). Ibn Jubayr, a Spanish Muslim who had been on a pilgrimage to Mecca, wrote of his journey through Outremer in as he travelled between Damascus and Acre: “The Muslims here own their own houses and rule themselves in their own way.
, views The Battle of Ravi () was the fourth and last of a series of defeats suffered by Mongol armies against Delhi Sultanate that greatly reduced the Mongol threat to northern India. THE TRAVELS OF IBN JUBAYR, One of the astonishing things that is talked of is that though the fires of discord burn between the two parties, Muslim and Christian, two armies of them may meet and dispose themselves in battle array, and yet Muslim and Christian travellers will come and go between them without metin2sell.com this connection we saw at this time, that is the month of Jumada.